About Testicular Cancer

Testicles are the two male sex glands located in your scrotum, the sac of loose skin directly below the penis. They produce and store sperm and are your body’s main source of male hormones. 
 
The two most common types of testicular cancers start in the germ cells, cells within the testicles that produce immature sperm. Other less common testicular cancers can form in the tissue where hormones are produced. 
 
Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in men age 15 to 35 years of age, but it can affect men of any age. It is a very curable form of cancer when caught early.
 

Symptoms

Testicular cancer symptoms may include:
 
  • Painless lump or swelling in either testicle
  • Changes in how your testicles feel
  • Dull ache in your lower abdomen or groin
  • Sudden build-up of fluid in your scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in your testicle or scrotum
 
You may not necessarily have testicular cancer even if you have one or more of these symptoms. They are also common with other conditions, but it’s important to see your doctor to determine the cause and begin treatment as soon as possible.
 

Stages

Unlike other cancers, there are only three stages of testicular cancer (not four); however, each stage is divided into three sub-stages. The earlier you are diagnosed, the more treatable it is, so see your doctor immediately if you have any symptoms.
 

Stage I

Stage IA
Cancer has formed in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle. All tumor markers are normal
Stage IB
All tumor markers are normal and cancer:
  • Is in the testicle and epididymis and has spread to the blood or lymph vessels in the testicle; or
  • Has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; or
  • Is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood or lymph vessels of the testicle.
Stage IS
Cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or the scrotum and either:
All tumor markers are slightly above normal; or
One or more tumor markers are moderately above normal or high.

Stage II

Stage IIA
Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or scrotum and has spread to up to five lymph nodes in the abdomen, none larger than two centimeters. All tumor markers are normal or slightly above normal.
Stage IIB
All tumor markers are normal or slightly above normal and cancer has:
  • Spread to up to five lymph nodes in the abdomen, at least one of which is larger than two centimeters but none larger than five centimeters; or
  • Spread to more than five lymph nodes, none of which are larger than five centimeters.
Stage IIC
All tumor markers are normal or slightly above normal and cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or scrotum and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than five centimeters.

Stage III

Stage IIIB
Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or the lungs. One or more tumor markers range from normal to slightly above normal.
Stage IIIB
Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or scrotum and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or the lungs. One or more tumor markers range from normal to high and cancer has:
Stage IIIC
Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord or scrotum and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or anywhere else in the body. One or more tumor markers range from normal to very high. 
 

Treatments We Offer

 

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